Immediate treatment is probably especially beneficial for people with recent HIV infection

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Immediate initiation of antiretroviral treatment produced the biggest boost in CD4 cell count for people infected with HIV less than six months previously, an analysis of the START study of prompt HIV treatment has found. Writing in the July issue of AIDS, the study investigators say that the benefit of early treatment for people with recent HIV infection may have been understated in START.

The START trial's overall finding was that starting treatment at a CD4 count above 500 cells/mm3 was associated with a 72% reduction in the risk of AIDS-defining events when compared to deferring treatment until a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3 was reached or HIV-related symptoms developed.

A greater CD4 count increase in people with recent infection might protect against HIV-related illness. Although the START study was not designed to look at differences in clinical outcomes according to duration of infection (it would have needed many more participants to carry out these comparisons), investigators were able to look at changes in CD4 cell count as a surrogate marker.


disease progression

The worsening of a disease.

person years

In a study “100 person years of follow-up” could mean that information was collected on 100 people for one year, or on 50 people for two years each, or on ten people over ten years. In practice, each person’s duration of follow-up is likely to be different.


A molecule on the surface of some white blood cells. Some of these cells can kill other cells that are infected with foreign organisms.

AIDS defining condition

Any HIV-related illness included in the list of diagnostic criteria for AIDS, which in the presence of HIV infection result in an AIDS diagnosis. They include opportunistic infections and cancers that are life-threatening in a person with HIV.

exclusion criteria

Defines who cannot take part in a research study. Eligibility criteria may include disease type and stage, other medical conditions, previous treatment history, age, and gender. For example, many trials exclude women who are pregnant, to avoid any possible danger to a baby, or people who are taking a drug that might interact with the treatment being studied.

The START study randomised 4684 adults living with HIV with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/mm3 to start treatment immediately or defer treatment until a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3 was reached or HIV-related symptoms.

In START, 373 people were classified as recently infected (Group 1). They either self-reported acquiring HIV within the six months prior to joining the study or had been diagnosed with HIV in the previous six months and had antibody markers that indicated recent HIV infection. Of those with a known infection date, the median time between exposure to HIV and randomisation in the study was 4.8 months.

People with early HIV infection are especially vulnerable to HIV disease progression without immediate treatment. 

The majority of study participants had been living with HIV for between 6 and 24 months (2634 persons, Group 2). A further 1605 participants had been living with HIV for at least two years (Group 3). Seventy-two participants were excluded from the analysis owing to missing samples.

At baseline the recently-infected group had slightly higher CD4 cell counts than the other groups (660 cells/mm3 compared to 654 in Group 2 and 644 in Group 3 (p=0.007). They also had lower CD8+ cell counts, indicating greater abnormality in immune function in this group.

The recently-infected group were significantly more likely to have a viral load above 50,000 copies/ml and significantly less likely to have a viral load below 3,000 copies/ml (both p<0.001) than the other groups.

After starting treatment, the mean CD4 cell gain was 194 cells/mm3 higher in the immediate treatment group after an average follow-up of three years, but this difference was greater in the recently-infected group (+231 cells) compared to groups 2 and 3 (+202 and +171 cells/mm3 respectively, p< 0.001). The recently-infected group also experienced greater increase in CD4:CD8 ratio, indicating greater normalisation of immune function.

In those who deferred treatment, the rate of CD4 cell decline to <350 cells/mm3 or development of AIDS was greater in the recently-infected group. People infected for less than six months were 52% more likely to reach one of these endpoints than people infected for at least two years (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.05), showing that people with early HIV infection are especially vulnerable to HIV disease progression without immediate treatment. The incidence of disease progression was 15.6 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the recently-infected group compared to 10.5 per 100 person-years in those infected for two years or more.

The findings from the START study reinforce the findings of the SPARTAC study of immediate versus deferred treatment in early HIV infection, which showed that people randomised to immediate treatment less than 12 weeks after seroconversion were less likely to experience a CD4 cell decline below 350 or need to start treatment for other reasons.

Starting treatment soon after HIV infection may be especially protective. The study findings emphasise the importance of clinical services which can offer same-day treatment initiation.

START investigators will continue to follow participants to 2021 to look at the long-term implications of the study findings, including the greater immunological recovery in recently-infected participants.


Sharma S et al. The benefit of immediate compared with deferred antiretroviral therapy on CD4+ cell count recovery in early HIV infection. AIDS, 33: 1335-44, 2019. (Abstract).