Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)

Lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, Aluvia) is a protease inhibitor drug available in tablet and solution form. Lopinavir is marketed only with a boosting dose of ritonavir; ritonavir is marketed separately as Norvir.

Protease inhibitors block the activity of the HIV protease (or proteinase) enzyme to slow HIV replication and delay damage to the immune system. For more information on how protease inhibitors work, see Protease inhibitors in the section Ways of attacking HIV.

Kaletra is made by Abbott Laboratories. Lopinavir was developed under the codename ABT-378 and approved for marketing in the United States in 2000 and in the European Union in 2001. A heat-stable, film-coated tablet was approved in the US in 2005 and in the EU in 2006, replacing the original gelatin capsule. Each tablet contains 200mg lopinavir plus 50mg ritonavir.

A paediatric tablet formulation of the drug was approved for paediatric use in the US in 2007 and in the EU in 2008 containing 100mg lopinavir plus 25mg ritonavir. Unlike the the oral formulation, Kaletra tablets can be taken with or without food and do not require refrigeration.