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HIV RNA lingers in CSF through up to 10 years of suppressive ART

HIV RNA remained detectable at low levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of almost 20% of patients who had HIV RNA levels below 40 copies/mL for up to 10 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The investigators believe their finding indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) can be an HIV reservoir during suppressive ART.

Published
28 October 2014
From
International AIDS Society
HIV's infection tactics could guide AIDS vaccine, study finds

New research that sheds light on the methods and machinery used by HIV to infect cells provides insight into the tricky virus that potentially could guide the development of a vaccine against the virus that causes AIDS, according to U.S. government and other scientists.

Published
09 October 2014
From
Reuters
Dynamic motion of HIV as it readies an attack: Seen in real time, for the first time

Technologies that allow investigators, for the first time, to watch what they call the 'dance' of HIV proteins on the virus' surface, which may contribute to how the virus infects human immune cells, have been developed by scientists. The new technology platform opens new possibilities for devising an approach to prevent HIV infection, note researchers

Published
09 October 2014
From
Science Daily
The genetics of coping with HIV

We respond to infections in two fundamental ways. One is 'resistance,' where the body attacks the invading pathogen and reduces its numbers. Another, which is much less well understood, is 'tolerance,' where the body tries to minimize the damage done by the pathogen. A study using data from a large Swiss cohort of HIV-infected individuals gives us a glimpse into why some people cope with HIV better than others.

Published
17 September 2014
From
Science Daily
Protein tethers HIV and Ebola to cells

A family of proteins that helps viruses, such as HIV and Ebola, enter a cell also can block the release of those viruses. When HIV-1 or any virus infects a cell, it replicates and spreads to other cells. One type of cellular protein—T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain, or TIM-1—has previously been shown to promote entry of some highly pathogenic viruses into host cells. Researchers have now discovered that the same protein possesses a unique ability to block the release of such viruses. The findings are published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “This is a surprising finding that provides new insights into our understanding of not only HIV infection, but also that of Ebola and other viruses,” says Shan-Lu Liu, associate professor of molecular microbiology and immunology at University of Missouri.

Published
26 August 2014
From
Futurity
How HIV co-opts gut bacteria to pose as a familiar infection

One of the most effective methods used by HIV to evade control is to hide from the immune system. B-cells are crucial for controlling new infections, producing specific antibodies to attack it, which coat the surface of infected cells and tag them for destruction. But according to a study from Duke Medicine, published in Cell Host & Microbe, when HIV enters and begins replicating in the gut, the reaction of B cells is ineffective because the virus is able to pose as a “good” bacterium. Its gp41 surface protein - which is displayed on the surface of infected cells - looks like surface proteins on the cells of friendly gut bacteria.

Published
21 August 2014
From
The Conversation UK
Gut flora influences HIV immune response

Normal microorganisms in the intestines appear to play a pivotal role in how the HIV virus foils a successful attack from the body’s immune system, according to new research. "Gut flora keeps us all healthy by helping the immune system develop, and by stimulating a group of immune cells that keep bacteria in check," said the study's senior author. "But this research shows that antibodies that react to bacteria also cross-react to the HIV envelope."

Published
14 August 2014
From
Science Daily
Why the immune system fails to kill HIV

Our immune system contains CD8+ T cells which protect us from various diseases such as cancer and viruses. Some of them are specifically tasked with killing cells infected with the HIV virus – and researchers from Karolinska Institutet, together with international colleagues, have for the first time identified a key explanation for why these cells are unsuccessful in their task. In simple terms, the immune system's ignition keys have not been turned all the way to the start position, which would enable the CD8+ T cells to kill the cells infected with HIV.

Published
19 July 2014
From
Karolinska Institutet press release
Paper explores new theory on spread of HIV by "popular" cells

"Popular" cells - could there really be such a thing? According to a new opinion paper published in PLoS Pathogens, the human body may contain cells that have more contact with other cells and could be "superspreaders" of the HIV virus.

Published
11 June 2014
From
HIV / AIDS News From Medical News Today
Researchers trace HIV adaptation to its human host

In a new study that traces the evolution of HIV in North America, researchers have found evidence that the virus is slowly adapting over time to its human hosts. However, this change is so gradual that it is unlikely to have an impact on vaccine design.

Published
11 June 2014
From
Science Daily
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