The annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2016) took place in Boston, USA from 22-25 February 2016.

Conference highlights


Almost-certain case of PrEP failure due to drug resistance reported at CROI 2016.

Conference bulletins

Conference bulletins, available in English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.

Achieving the 90-90-90 target

Botswana close to reaching the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets.

Transgender people

Trans people are at high risk for HIV, but too little is known about prevention and treatment.

HIV prevention

Vaginal rings containing an anti-HIV drug are moderately effective in preventing HIV.

HIV epidemiology

The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with HIV in the US has decreased but varies widely among population.


Tenofovir treatment raises the risk of broken bones.


People with HIV considerably overestimate their chance of infecting someone.

New HIV treatment

Combination of long-acting injectable anti-HIV drugs work well as HIV maintenance therapy.

aidsmap news from CROI 2016

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News bulletins

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Tweets from CROI 2016

  • Catch up with news from #CROI2016 - the third of our summary bulletins is out now: #HIV #PrEP #HepatitisC #TB26 Feb 2016 04:06
  • "The high rate of STIs among #PrEP clients means we are reaching the people at most risk." -- Dr. Golub of @CallenLorde #CROI201626 Feb 2016 01:37
  • Perfect ending for #CROI2016 with the magnificent and solidary talk by Julia del Amo re HIV and Migrants: "how can we test and not treat?"25 Feb 2016 11:01
  • To get to 90-90-90 barriers among migrants must be addressed. Migrants need universal access to #HIV testing says del Amo Valero #croi201625 Feb 2016 10:51
  • Rashida Ferrand: Global antiretroviral coverage in children/adolescents is 34% vs 68% in adults #CROI201625 Feb 2016 10:46
  • How many of the state's w/ highest risk of contracting #HIV have abstinence-only ed in schools? #CROI201625 Feb 2016 10:14
  • Rashida Ferrand: adolescents living with #HIV - only group in whom HIV-related mortality is increasing #CROI201625 Feb 2016 10:06
  • How can we use social media more to effectively communicate with affected youth and adolescents? #CROI2016 #HIVwhome25 Feb 2016 09:29
  • A.Sohn: #HIV no.1 cause of death amongst #adolescents in sub-Saharan #Africa,2nd most common cause globally.Urgent action needed #CROI201625 Feb 2016 09:22
  • Going to the last session of #CROI2016 focused on the HIV hotspots. Finding and focusing interventions in hotspots will stop HIV25 Feb 2016 09:05
  • Fab last day #CROI2016 early treatment, less infctn assoc cancer. Women with high CD4 counts - no inc risk of CIN 2+ compared to controls.25 Feb 2016 08:42
  • Rolling out test and treat and #PrEP for #HIV. Challenges and cost-effectiveness vary in each setting #croi201625 Feb 2016 07:37
  • Adrian Smith: Homonegativity, criminalisation, #stigma prevents access to #HIV prevention and treatment for #MSM worldwide #CROI201625 Feb 2016 06:52
  • The new Tenofovir formulation (TAF) may be distributed differently vs older formulation (TDF), offer LESS protection as #PrEP. #CROI201625 Feb 2016 06:43
  • Household and hospital transmission is the main driver of the XDR-TB epidemic in South Africa #CROI201625 Feb 2016 05:04
  • Elegant genetic studies show United States #HIV came from Caribbean to New York then spread to SFO circa 1970 Abstract 140 #CROI201625 Feb 2016 05:00
  • 25 Feb 2016 04:54
  • The second of our #CROI2016 news summary bulletins is out now: #HIV #PrEP25 Feb 2016 04:54
  • Waked: Egyptian study finds ravidasvir + sofosbuvir cures 95%-100% of genotype 4 #hepC pts w/o & 86%-100% pts with cirrhosis #CROI201625 Feb 2016 04:35
  • Incidence of IDU in non-urban areas more than twice that of urban areas #CROI2016 #maine #harmreduction #treataddiction25 Feb 2016 02:54
  • recognition by law enforcement of drug use as a medical rather than criminal issue key to preventing infectious disease outbreaks #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:32
  • The importance of syringe programmes highlighted by the HIV outbreak in Scott county, IN, fuelled by blindfolded authorities #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:25
  • Brooks @CDCgov: Indiana #HIV & #hepC outbreak devastating but entirely preventable #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:24
  • Brooks- The growing epidemic of opioid abuse & IDU is rising among populations previously considered low-risk for #HIV. #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:24
  • John Brooks:#Addiction a medical condition,not a crime.Public health must work w/correctional services to provide appropriate care #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:18
  • We have know for long that harm reduction works, shocking to see that it is not self-evident in some parts of the USA. #CROI2016 #HIV25 Feb 2016 02:18
  • Brooks: In 2014 more US deaths due to drug overdose than auto accidents #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:17
  • Brooks: We're seeing consequences of war on drugs, need to show law enforcement it’s a public health issue #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:15
  • John Brooks @CDCgov: 2015 rural Indiana outbreak now 188 new #HIV infections among #PWID, 90% coinfected w/#hepC #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:06
  • @CDC_HIVAIDS’ Dr. John Brooks details the public health response to an HIV outbreak related to injection drug use in rural IN. #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:03
  • Eric Rubin: Big clinical trials of #TB treatment have been disappointing, but we'll get there #CROI201625 Feb 2016 02:00
  • Long-acting PrEP injection tolerable and acceptable for male volunteers, but dose adjustment needed #CROI201625 Feb 2016 01:32
  • Staking my place in the Auditorium early—soundtrack Violent Femmes American Music, good work team. #croi201625 Feb 2016 12:51
  • Positive Voices data shows high rates of chemsex among HIV positive MSM #croi2016 Feb 2016 12:36
  • My inbox is full of emails about one thing. Vaginal rings. Vaginal rings. #croi2016 #HIV #PrEP @HIVpxresearch @WHO @UNITAID25 Feb 2016 11:06
  • Mallon #CROI2016: Only HIV drug that's solidly tied to BMD loss is tenofovir (the old one, not TAF). Others? Meh, but may increase turnover.24 Feb 2016 10:51
  • Grimsrud: nearly 40k stable ART patients in Cape Town area in adherence clubs. #CROI201624 Feb 2016 10:40
  • A common theme at #CROI2016 - exercise is an important intervention for many chronic conditions affecting HIV+ people24 Feb 2016 10:16
  • Appx 1.2M Americans could benefit from #PrEP, but many providers don’t know about #PrEP & many who are at-risk aren’t using it. #CROI201624 Feb 2016 09:33
  • We need to move from know your partner HIV status to know your partner viral load #CROI2016 says Andreas Jahn from Malawi @PEPFAR24 Feb 2016 09:28
  • Ministry of Health of Malawi, Andreas Jahn sharing the best practice of his country in tackling HIV using option B+ #CROI201624 Feb 2016 09:24
  • Nice update on #Ebola survivors cohort study in #Liberia at #CROI2016 Feb 2016 09:23
  • We have the tools in place to end our nation’s #HIV epidemic, but we must close the gaps in testing, treatment, & prevention. #CROI201624 Feb 2016 09:09
  • #CROI2016 buzzing about #PrEPnavigators to have more open discussion about sex, #PrEP access and STI management24 Feb 2016 07:43
  • Really enjoyed themed discussion on HIV and the #microbiome led by Nichole Klatt #CROI2016 #probiotics #microbiota24 Feb 2016 07:43
  • #CROI2016 microbiome: Fecal transplant is well-tolerated in #HIV men, but did not reproduce #microbiome diversity of donors.24 Feb 2016 07:07
  • Sarit Golub: Folks who are deciding to take #PrEP need it -- if there is an increase in STIs it is outweighed by #HIV protection #CROI201624 Feb 2016 06:40
  • Panel is unanimous:PrEP can be a great chance to reveal STIs.Rather than PrEP driving STIs.Calls out to media to get message out! #CROI201624 Feb 2016 06:34
  • Themes from #CROI2016 so far: how to meet the @UNAIDS 90-90-90 goal, longer lasting prevention & treatment options, & #PrEP PrEP & more PrEP24 Feb 2016 06:23
  • A Liu of @SF_DPH: 4% decline n kidney function assoc w #PrEP use. Improves once stopped. #CROI2016 @WHO @CDC_HIVAIDS @iasociety @jiasociety24 Feb 2016 06:17

Official conference website

Find out more on the official conference website.

Visit the CROI 2016 website >

NAM's coverage of CROI 2016 has been made possible thanks to support from Gilead Sciences and ViiV Healthcare.

Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap

This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.