Transmission and prevention: latest news

Transmission and prevention resources

  • Oral sex

    Many people enjoy giving and receiving oral sex – kissing, licking or sucking another person’s genitals.The risk of getting HIV from performing oral sex on...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • How to get PrEP in the UK

    In England, PrEP is available to people taking part in the PrEP Impact trial.In Wales and Scotland, PrEP is available through NHS sexual health clinics.It is also...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Transmission and viral load

    An undetectable viral load shows that HIV treatment is working well and that there is very little HIV in body fluids.In this situation, the risk...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Transmission facts

    HIV can only be passed on when one person's body fluids get inside another person. HIV can be passed on during sex without a condom,...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Undetectable viral load

    If your viral load result is undetectable, there is only a little HIV in the body. The aim of HIV treatment is to have an...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Transmission and the law

    Some people have gone to prison because they have passed HIV on to another person. They were convicted of 'recklessly transmitting HIV'.In England and Wales,...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)

    PrEP is highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV. For PrEP to work well, it’s important to take the pills regularly.While PrEP can...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)

    PEP involves taking a 28-day course of anti-HIV drugs, after possible exposure to HIV.Doctors will assess your risk of HIV infection before prescribing PEP.PEP is available from...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Using anti-HIV drugs to prevent HIV

    The goal of HIV treatment is an undetectable viral load. An undetectable viral load means that your blood has a level of HIV below the level which...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Condoms

    Male and female condoms provide excellent protection against HIV and most other sexually transmitted infections. To be effective, they need to be used correctly. Where possible, choose a...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • HIV and having a baby

    Women living with HIV can give birth without passing on HIV to the baby.Your options for conception will depend on your health and your partner’s...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • HIV transmission

    The two main ways in which HIV is passed on are unprotected vaginal and anal sex.Condoms, PrEP and HIV treatment are effective ways of preventing...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Viral load and transmission – a factsheet for HIV-negative people

    People with HIV who are on treatment and have an undetectable viral load are extremely unlikely to pass on HIV.Large scientific studies have proven this.Not...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Viral load and transmission – a factsheet for people with HIV

    Effective HIV treatment reduces the amount of HIV in your body fluids.Having an undetectable viral load greatly reduces your chance of passing HIV on to...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Condoms

    Condoms protect against HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy.Both female and male condoms are available.It’s important to follow the advice on how to use...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • PrEP

    This briefing paper provides an overview of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for people planning, commissioning or providing HIV prevention activities in the UK. It does this by reviewing...

    From: HIV prevention briefing papers

  • Sex and HIV

    Sex, desire and pleasure need not stop when you have an HIV diagnosis. Women continue to be sexually active and to have fulfilling sexual and emotional relationships. Many...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Sex

    Having HIV can affect people’s feelings about sex in many different ways. Some people become anxious about passing HIV on, or feel less desirable. While some people go...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Transmission of drug-resistant virus

    Some people contract HIV that is already resistant to one or more anti-HIV drugs (this has been the case for between 6 and 10% of people in...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • HIV treatment as prevention

    This briefing paper, produced by NAM for HIV Prevention England, describes the scientific evidence for HIV treatment as prevention and considers its implications for the UK....

    From: HIV prevention briefing papers

  • Undiagnosed HIV infection

    This briefing paper, produced by NAM for HIV Prevention England, covers undiagnosed HIV infection and late diagnosis of HIV in the UK....

    From: HIV prevention briefing papers

  • Behaviour change

    A practical introduction to the evidence regarding the effectiveness of non-biomedical HIV prevention methods....

    From: Preventing HIV

    Information level Level 4
  • Post-exposure prophylaxis

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has been in use, in healthcare settings, since 1988. Providing PEP after sexual exposure is more controversial....

    From: Preventing HIV

    Information level Level 4
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis is an experimental HIV-prevention strategy that would use antiretrovirals (ARVs) to protect HIV-negative people from HIV infection....

    From: Preventing HIV

    Information level Level 4
  • Microbicides

    Microbicides are any substances which protect people against infection by microbes, such as viruses or bacteria, on contact with those microbes....

    From: Preventing HIV

    Information level Level 4
  • Preventing HIV

    An essential resource providing evidence-based information on preventing HIV infection. ...

    From: Aidsmap 2.0

    Information level Level 4
  • Risk

    An examination of prosecuted behaviours, using scientific evidence to determine actual risk, and how this evidence has been applied in jurisdictions worldwide....

    From: HIV & the criminal law

    Information level Level 4
  • HIV transmission & testing

    A practical guide to the complexities surrounding HIV transmission routes, risks and HIV testing. ...

    From: Aidsmap 2.0

    Information level Level 4

Transmission and prevention features

Transmission and prevention in your own words

  • Bored and horny

    It’s Sunday afternoon and it’s raining. I’m bored and horny. However, I’ve got £20 left over from the night before and this will be enough...

    From: In your own words

Transmission and prevention news from aidsmap

  • Starting from here – what PrEP programmes can learn from circumcision

    Funders, health providers and advocates should take lessons from the rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an HIV prevention measure in Africa if they wish to hasten access to programmes providing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), researchers argue in ...

    10 September 2018 | Gus Cairns
  • PrEP for female sex workers: non-judgemental attitudes and community involvement are keys to success

    Several studies presented at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam last month detailed very different approaches to introducing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to female sex workers (FSWs) as part of combination HIV prevention.The studies range from an innovative community-run ...

    28 August 2018 | Gus Cairns
  • PrEP spreads across Africa – slowly

    This year, 2018, will be the year that a really significant number of people in Africa started HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam heard last week. PrEP was probably the dominant ...

    06 August 2018 | Gus Cairns
  • Digital innovations are promoting HIV testing and prevention to MSM in Asia

    Innovative health promotion interventions engaging men who have sex with men (MSM) in south east Asia through social media, apps, online marketing, video tools and phone services were highlighted at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) last week. ...

    30 July 2018 | Roger Pebody
  • Series of HIV outbreaks in people who inject drugs shows that ‘complacency is the new problem’

    There have been outbreaks of rapid HIV transmission among people who inject drugs in Athens, Bucharest, Dublin, Glasgow, Luxembourg, Tel Aviv, Saskatchewan (Canada) and Scott County (Indiana, USA) since 2011. They have all occurred in settings where sufficient resources ...

    27 July 2018 | Roger Pebody
  • PrEP use linked to fewer new HIV infections in US states

    As pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use continues to grow, epidemiological evidence is starting to show an association between increases in PrEP uptake and declines in new infections. A new analysis presented this week at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam ...

    26 July 2018 | Liz Highleyman
  • PrEP does not lower feminising hormone level in transgender women

    Using Truvada (tenofovir DF/emtricitabine) for HIV prevention does not lower levels of feminising hormones, offering reassurance for transgender women who are concerned about drug interactions, according to a presentation at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam.  Tenofovir levels in ...

    25 July 2018 | Liz Highleyman
  • Zero transmissions mean zero risk – PARTNER 2 study results announced

    The chance of any HIV-positive person with an undetectable viral load transmitting the virus to a sexual partner is scientifically equivalent to zero, researchers confirmed at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) in Amsterdam today. Final ...

    24 July 2018 | Gus Cairns
  • The “Undetectable = Untransmittable” message goes global: I=I, N=N and B=B

    In Guatemala, the slogan is “Indetectable = Intransmisible” (I=I); in the Netherlands, it’s “Niet meetbaar = Niet overdraagbaar” (N=N); and in Turkey, “Belirlenemeyen = Bulaştırmayan” (B=B). One of the most striking aspects of yesterday’s pre-conference on “Undetectable = Untransmittable” (U=U), ...

    23 July 2018 | Roger Pebody
  • Will an HIV vaccine that protected two-thirds of monkeys do the same for humans?

    The Lancet last Friday published the 52-week results of APPROACH, an HIV vaccine whose 28-week results, reported by aidsmap.com last year, were sufficiently impressive for it to be taken forward into a human efficacy trial among 2600 young ...

    13 July 2018 | Gus Cairns
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Transmission and prevention news selected from other sources

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Our information levels explained

  • Short and simple introductions to key HIV topics, sometimes illustrated with pictures.
  • Expands on the previous level, but also written in easy-to-understand plain language.
  • More detailed information, likely to include medical and scientific language.
  • Detailed, comprehensive information, using medical and specialised language.
Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap
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This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.