How transmission occurs: latest news

How transmission occurs resources

  • Oral sex

    Many people enjoy giving and receiving oral sex – kissing, licking or sucking another person’s genitals.The risk of getting HIV from performing oral sex on...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Transmission and viral load

    An undetectable viral load shows that HIV treatment is working well and that there is very little HIV in body fluids.In this situation, the risk...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Transmission facts

    HIV can only be passed on when one person's body fluids get inside another person. HIV can be passed on during sex without a condom,...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • HIV transmission

    The two main ways in which HIV is passed on are unprotected vaginal and anal sex.Condoms, PrEP and HIV treatment are effective ways of preventing...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Sex

    Having HIV can affect people’s feelings about sex in many different ways. Some people become anxious about passing HIV on, or feel less desirable. While some people go...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Risk

    An examination of prosecuted behaviours, using scientific evidence to determine actual risk, and how this evidence has been applied in jurisdictions worldwide....

    From: HIV & the criminal law

    Information level Level 4
  • How transmission occurs

    HIV can be transmitted through – and, as far as essentially all evidence shows, only through – several well-established routes: By sharing injecting equipment By...

    From: HIV transmission & testing

    Information level Level 4

How transmission occurs features

How transmission occurs in your own words

  • Bored and horny

    It’s Sunday afternoon and it’s raining. I’m bored and horny. However, I’ve got £20 left over from the night before and this will be enough...

    From: In your own words

How transmission occurs news from aidsmap

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How transmission occurs news selected from other sources

  • Schistosomiasis increases HIV risk in African women

    Pre-existing schistosomiasis infection almost tripled the risk for HIV infection in women from a rural area of Tanzania, according to recent data. The parasitic worm infection also increased HIV viral load at seroconversion.

    01 November 2017 | Healio
  • Penile Microbiome Linked to HIV Risk in Uncircumcised Men

    A study in Africa found that men with high levels of certain bacteria under the foreskin were more likely to contract HIV.

    12 September 2017 | Poz
  • Vertical HIV transmission may be influenced by complex synergies with other STI – such as Cytomegalovirus

    The apparently greater susceptibility of sub-Saharan African women to HIV infection has led researchers to consider the various potential synergies between HIV and other genital infections or conditions of the vaginal microbiome. A recent study brings this wider perspective to bear on mother-to-child transmission, casting some fresh light on the complex interrelation between the ‘vertical’ transmission of HIV and active and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viruria.

    27 July 2017 | BMJ Group blogs
  • Study points to penile microbiome as a risk factor for HIV in men

    A ten-fold increase in some types of bacteria living under the foreskin can increase a man's risk of HIV infection by up to 63 percent, according to a new study out today by researchers at Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University (GW).

    25 July 2017 | Medical Xpress
  • Melbourne man tests positive to HIV while taking preventative drug

    A man has tested positive to HIV at a Melbourne clinic while participating in a trial of PrEP, an antiretroviral drug credited with preventing the spread of the disease. It's understood just over a week ago, he tested positive to HIV at a Melbourne clinic. On Monday, a spokesman at The Alfred confirmed researchers were "reviewing the clinical details of a man who has tested positive to HIV while being a registered participant of the Victorian PrEPX study."

    22 May 2017 | The Age (Melbourne)
  • Bacterial communities of female genital tract impact HIV infection risk

    More diverse vaginal microbiomes in South African women may underlie increased risk

    12 January 2017 | Ragon Institute
  • HIV/AIDS: Filarial worm infections double the risk of infection

    Since the start of the HIV epidemic, there have been speculations as to why HIV and the immunodeficiency syndrome it causes have spread so much more in Africa than in other countries around the world. Scientists have now, for the first time, confirmed one reason for this: in a cohort study conducted in Tanzania, they discovered that an infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti increases the risk of HIV infection by two to three fold.

    16 August 2016 | Eurekalert Inf Dis
  • Early-capture HIV study allows for characterization of acute infection period

    Acute HIV infection (AHI) contributes significantly to HIV transmission and may be important for intervention strategies seeking to reduce incidence and achieve a functional cure. In a study by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, scientists enrolled and intensively followed a cohort of high-risk individuals, tracking their HIV status and characterizing the disease through the acute stages of HIV infection.

    19 May 2016 | EurekAlert!
  • Have sex workers revealed a connection between semen exposure and HIV resistance?

    In a new study, scientists at The Wistar Institute have found that continued semen exposure in these sex workers sustains changes in the cervical and vaginal microenvironment in a way that may actually increase HIV-1 resistance. This information may lead the way to better preventative strategies that block the transmission of the virus and improved designs for future HIV vaccine studies that can monitor the described changes when recruiting sex workers into vaccine trials.

    09 December 2015 | Eurekalert Inf Dis
  • Meet the HIV-negative men who won't have sex with HIV-positive men

    FS surveyed 3,140 gay men and found 44% of HIV-negative men that would not have sex with an openly HIV-positive man. So we decided to reach out to these men and ask them directly, why?

    02 December 2015 | FS
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Our information levels explained

  • Short and simple introductions to key HIV topics, sometimes illustrated with pictures.
  • Expands on the previous level, but also written in easy-to-understand plain language.
  • More detailed information, likely to include medical and scientific language.
  • Detailed, comprehensive information, using medical and specialised language.
Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap
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This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.