HIV criminalisation continues: a global review has found that HIV-related arrests, investigations, prosecutions and convictions have ever occurred in at least 72 countries, with recent cases occurring in 49 countries, including 14 in which the law appeared to be applied for the first time.
Just 18% of people with hepatitis/HIV co-infection and cirrhosis are screened for liver cancer as often as recommended
There is a “strikingly low adherence” to clinical guidelines for ultrasound screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in western Europe, researchers report in the Journal of Viral Hepatitis.
Just over one in ten (12%) children and adolescents living with HIV in Europe and Thailand take a break from antiretroviral treatment, usually as a result of their own decision, findings from the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration, published in HIV Medicine, show.
The burden of the global HIV epidemic is disproportionately falling on lower-prevalence countries, according to an analysis published in the Journal of Virus Eradication. The majority of new HIV infections, cases of mother-to-child HIV transmission and AIDS-related deaths now occur in countries with HIV prevalence below 4.5%. Lower-prevalence countries also had lower rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and early infant diagnosis.
Qualitative research with HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in Australia who had been cured of hepatitis C infection revealed that having hepatitis C was more stigmatising than HIV infection. While being a member of certain social and sexual networks increased the chances of reinfection with hepatitis C, leaving these networks and abstinence from drug use could lead to social isolation.
Switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) after a single viral load measurement above 1000 copies/ml has the potential to save lives, avert a significant burden of AIDS-related illnesses and help achieve the 90-90-90 target, according to the results of a modelling study published in AIDS.
Rectal douching may put men who have sex with men (MSM) at increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), according to research published in Sexually Transmitted Infections. Synthesising the results of 24 separate studies, investigators showed that rectal douching was associated with increased odds of infection with HIV and STIs including viral hepatitis and bacterial infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea.
Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been accompanied by big falls in incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Malawi, according to research published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society. However, rates of TB among people on ART still remained higher than those observed in the general population, underlining the importance of rapid TB diagnosis.
A systematic review of whether different interventions helped to overcome self-stigma in people in African and Asian countries who are living with or at risk of HIV has found that most interventions worked.
One in five public health facilities in South Africa were unable to supply at least one antiretroviral (ARV) or tuberculosis (TB) drug on the day they were contacted by researchers, while over a third had had a drug stockout in the previous three months, according to a national survey published in PLOS ONE.
The throat is a major source of gonorrhoea transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), according to Australian research published in Sexually Transmitted Infections. The study involved 60 male couples and showed a high prevalence of gonorrhoea infection in the throat and/or anus in the absence of urethral infection. The investigators suggest that transmission is occurring due to kissing, oral sex, rimming, or the use of saliva as lubricant for anal sex.
Use of the TB LAM test in people with HIV with CD4 counts below 200 boosted the number of people diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) by a third, an observational study in Malawi and Mozambique has found. Almost half of TB cases would have been missed if LAM had not been included in the diagnostic algorithm, showing that the test is useful in a far wider population than currently recommended.