Nicotine metabolised at a faster rate among HIV-positive smokers – implications for quitting smoking
HIV-positive smokers metabolise nicotine at a significantly higher rate than HIV-negative individuals, investigators from the United States report in the online edition of AIDS. The finding could explain why people with HIV have more difficulty quitting smoking than their HIV-negative peers. A second study involving the same HIV-positive smokers and published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes showed that a higher nicotine metabolism ratio (NMR) was associated with symptoms of anxiety and treatment with efavirenz.
Cocaine users have poorer adherence to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and engagement with care, according to research published in the online edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. Even light cocaine use doubled the odds of having blood levels of tenofovir, a key PrEP drug, that were insufficient to protect against infection with HIV. Individuals with moderate/heavy cocaine use were three times more likely to drop out of PrEP care than individuals who did not use cocaine.
Real-world data from a large American chain of retail pharmacies show that only two in five people keep on taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for two years after starting, researchers report in the Journal of the International AIDS Society.
HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Vancouver, Canada are redefining ways to negotiate sexual safety and risk, according to qualitative research recently published by Dr Benjamin Klassen and colleagues in BMC Public Health. Condoms are no longer seen as the only means of preventing HIV infection.
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in New York City rate daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as the most effective HIV prevention strategy when condoms aren’t used, and considerably more effective than treatment as prevention or event-based PrEP, according to survey results published in AIDS and Behavior. Men rated these biomedical approaches far ahead of ‘strategic positioning’ or withdrawal before ejaculation.
Frequent cannabis smoking is a risk factor for lung disease in HIV-positive men, according to US research published in EClinicalMedicine. Smoking cannabis increased the risk of pulmonary diseases – especially those with an infectious cause – independent of smoking and CD4 cell count. The research involved approximately 2500 men who have sex with men (MSM), half of whom were HIV positive. No independent associations were detected between smoking cannabis and lung disease in HIV-negative men, showing that HIV-positive individuals are especially vulnerable to lung disease caused by smoking the drug.
A simple HIV prevention cascade could be a powerful tool for advocates, policy makers and funders, researchers argue in The Lancet HIV. It could help us understand where the gaps in prevention are, to monitor implementation and to set meaningful targets.
Treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) reduced the risk of death, liver cancer and death from liver-related causes in French people with hepatitis C, according to results of one of the largest studies to date of the impact of the drugs.
Basic scientists in France have recently discovered that macrophages located in urethral tissue can contribute to cellular HIV reservoirs, and that the quantity of these specific immune cells is surprisingly high. Results were published in Nature Microbiology.