Lesotho, in spite of a high HIV prevalence of over 25%, is making substantial progress toward meeting the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, with a reported 77% of adults who tested positive in a household survey already knowing their HIV status, Dr Thin of the Lesotho Ministry of Health told participants at the 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI 2018) held in Boston in March.
Use of an integrase inhibitor, which can bring down viral load rapidly, was not associated with an increased risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in people who started antiretroviral treatment with very low CD4 cell counts, according to a presentation at the conference.
South African researchers presenting a study at the conference have suggested that the reason the extremely high rates of HIV infection in women are stubbornly refusing to decline is, seemingly unfairly, because women are more likely to be diagnosed and take antiretroviral therapy than men.
People who switched from an antiretroviral regimen containing abacavir to one containing tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) showed less platelet reactivity, which reduces platelet aggregation or blood clotting, according to a report at the conference.
People with HIV are more likely to develop cardiovascular conditions, including atherosclerosis and peripheral artery disease, than their HIV-negative counterparts, researchers reported at the conference.
People with HIV aged 60 and over in the United States are more than twice as likely to have an AIDS-defining illness or a CD4 cell count below 200 compared to under-40s, according to data presented to the conference.
A European study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presented at the conference shows that age makes a considerable difference to whether a person is more likely to be infected with, or to transmit, HIV.
The state of New South Wales in Australia has seen a fall of one-third in diagnoses of recent HIV infection since it started its pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation project, EPIC-NSW (Expanded PrEP Implementation in the Community), the conference heard.
Failure of second-line ART is common in resource-limited countries, but modern third-line regimens work well
More than half of people in low- and middle-income countries may not maintain viral suppression on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to a study presented at the conference.
Very early HIV treatment in infants is feasible and safe and leads to a small reservoir of infected cells, two studies from Botswana and Thailand show. The findings offer hope that infants diagnosed and treated soon after birth will have a better chance of controlling HIV if future research leads to interventions that can control HIV without prolonged treatment – a so-called functional cure.
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) during and after pregnancy in women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in tuberculosis (TB) endemic areas in Africa, Asia and Haiti resulted in serious adverse events quite possibly attributable to isoniazid with no significant reduction in TB cases, participants heard at the conference.
Treatment with extended-release naltrexone increases chances that HIV-positive prisoners will maintain viral suppression after release
Treatment with extended-release naltrexone is associated with improved viral suppression among HIV-positive prisoners, according to two US studies presented at the conference.