Sweden has become the first country to achieve the UNAIDS/World Health Organization (WHO) 90-90-90 target, research published in HIV Medicine shows. At the end of 2015, 90% of HIV cases in Sweden were diagnosed, 99.8% of people were linked to care and 95% of people taking antiretrovirals for at least six months had a viral load below 50 copies/ml.
Dedicated efforts are needed to engage transgender men and women with clinical services and to encourage them to use PrEP, Asa Radix of the Callen-Lorde Community Health Center in New York told the recent 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) in Durban, South Africa.
Ugandan experience shows TB detection can be successfully incorporated into community HIV testing campaigns
Community health campaigns provide an opportunity to detect previously undiagnosed cases of tuberculosis (TB), investigators report in the online edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. Research conducted in rural Uganda showed that incorporating TB screening into community health campaigns offering universal HIV testing led to the diagnosis of undetected TB cases. Overall, approximately 3000 people need to be screened to identify one new case of TB, but among people with HIV and chronic cough, the yield was one new TB diagnosis per 80 screens.
Among English gay men who have never previously taken a test for HIV, self-testing and self-sampling are the most popular options for a future HIV test, but a significant proportion would use a sexual health clinic, the best-established site of HIV testing in the country. Men with higher levels of sexual risk (who tend to test more often) would be most likely to return to a sexual health clinic, but there is interest in self-testing too.
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) – including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancers, and other illnesses – will represent a significant challenge for HIV care in low- and middle-income countries as the population of people on HIV treatment grows and ages, the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) held in Durban heard in July.
Delays in adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) 2015 recommendation of HIV treatment for all threaten the achievement of the 90-90-90 targets for HIV diagnosis and viral suppression by 2020, research carried out by the International Association of Physicians in Aids Care (IAPAC) indicates.
London gay men anticipate some pros and cons of different PrEP methods – but optimal efficacy is key to acceptability
When presented with a range of possible HIV prevention technologies – a daily pill, pills before and after sex, injections, or a rectal gel – gay men in London have a range of views about which methods they would prefer, but the biggest determining factor was a method’s efficacy. Men felt they might be willing to experience more inconvenience or greater discomfort if a particular method offered them greater protection against HIV than another.
Acceptability of PrEP for London gay men affected by perception of risk, sexual partners’ attitudes and the stigmatisation of sex
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is broadly acceptable to London gay men who are at risk of acquiring HIV, with many men seeing its potential to protect them from infection and to reduce anxiety during sex. Nonetheless, the lack of honest discussion about sex and risk with friends, peers and in the wider community is likely to impact the acceptability of PrEP, according to a doctoral thesis by Will Nutland at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Life expectancy of people starting HIV therapy differs sharply between high- and middle/low-income countries
There are significant disparities in the life expectancy of HIV-positive people starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between world regions, according to the results of a meta-analysis published in HIV Medicine. In high-income countries, a 20 year old starting treatment was calculated to have a total life expectancy of 63 years, but in low/middle-income countries men starting treatment at that age had a total life expectancy of 43 years and women a life expectancy of 53 years. Life expectancy improved over time, reflecting improvements in HIV treatment and care.
HIV-positive gay and bisexual men have increased risk of hospitalisation with anxiety and mood disorders, a risk factor for later mortality
HIV-positive gay and bisexual men are almost ten times more likely to be hospitalised because of mood and anxiety disorders than men in the general population, according to Australian research published in the online edition of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes.
Treatment with statins decreases the risk of progression to liver cirrhosis in people with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection, investigators from the United States report in AIDS. The protective effect of statins was most evident in people with normal liver function, with a 30% increase in the amount of time taking statins reducing the risk of cirrhosis by approximately a third. The research also showed that several other metabolic risk factors were associated with progression to cirrhosis, especially in people with poorer liver function.