More news from the International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016)

Vaginal bacteria increase HIV susceptibility and may reduce PrEP effectiveness

Overgrowth of a certain species of vaginal bacteria was associated with a 13-fold higher likelihood of becoming infected with HIV, while another species was found to lower tenofovir levels and may contribute to reduced efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivered in a vaginal gel, according to a set of presentations at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) last month in Durban, South Africa.

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No new HIV infections seen in San Francisco's Strut PrEP programme

A community-based sexual health clinic in San Francisco has offered nurse-led pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services to more than 1200 clients and has seen no HIV infections to date, according to a presentation at the conference.

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Efavirenz appears to be associated with elevated suicide risk in START trial

Participants in the START treatment-timing trial who took antiretroviral regimens containing efavirenz had an increased risk of suicidal and self-injuring behaviour than those not using efavirenz, though the number of events was small and the effect was mainly seen among people with a prior psychiatric diagnosis, according to research presented at the conference.

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A detectable CMV viral load could signal a high risk of mortality in older individuals hospitalised with HIV-associated TB

A study conducted in a cohort of hospitalised adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection from Khayelitsha found that having a detectable cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load was associated with higher mortality within the first 12 weeks on TB treatment, according to Dr Amy Ward of the University of Cape Town who presented the findings at the conference.

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Package of prophylaxis against infections reduces the risk of death for people starting HIV treatment very late

A package of enhanced prophylaxis against infections significantly reduced the risk of death in adults and children with advanced HIV disease after starting antiretroviral treatment in a randomised study, Professor James Hakim of the University of Zimbabwe told the conference.

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AbbVie 3D and 2D hepatitis C combos work well for people with HIV and HCV co-infection

AbbVie's paritaprevir-based 3D regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 2D regimen for genotype 4 were shown to be highly effective and well tolerated for HIV-positive people with HCV co-infection in the TURQUOISE-I trial, according to a report at the conference.

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START analysis looks at who benefits most from immediate HIV treatment

Starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after HIV diagnosis led to better outcomes than delayed treatment in all population sub-groups in the START trial, researchers reported at the conference. But some people saw greater risk reductions, including those over age 50, those with a lower CD4:CD8 ratio and higher viral load, and those with cardiovascular risk factors.

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Training community health workers to perform intensified TB case finding associated with a surge in TB diagnoses in a rural Malawi study

Intensified tuberculosis case finding (TB ICF) by community health workers was associated with a dramatic (20-fold) increase in TB case detection at a very busy antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in rural Malawi, according to findings presented at the conference.

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News from the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016)

For more conference news, and our summary bulletins from the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) held in Durban, South Africa, last month, visit our AIDS 2016 webpages.

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Other recent news headlines

Most patients taking second-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa achieve viral suppression but there's a need for third-line treatment options

Approximately 85% of patients switched to protease inhibitor-based second-line antiretroviral (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load with their new regimen, according to research in the online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases.

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People shifting from paediatric to adult HIV care have a high risk of ART failure

HIV-positive adolescents and young adults are especially likely to experience the virological failure of their antiretroviral treatment when they move from paediatric to adult HIV care, according to Dutch research published in the online edition of Clinical Infectious Diseases. The risk of virological failure was increased over four-fold at the time of care transition, 18 to 19 years of age. Risk factors associated with viral breakthrough were low educational attainment, poor knowledge of HIV and lack of independence regarding HIV treatment adherence.

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Ending AIDS by 2030 a distant prospect, global HIV incidence, prevalence, treatment coverage and mortality figures suggest

Remarkable progress has been made towards curbing the global HIV epidemic, but there is little chance of achieving the UNAIDS goal of “ending AIDS” by 2030, according to data published in The Lancet. Investigators found that global HIV incidence peaked in 1997 and fell steadily until 2005. However, for the past ten years there have been only modest annual falls in the rate of new infections. Of the 195 countries included in the study, 102 experienced an increase in the annual number of new HIV infections between 2005 and 2015.  

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High Court rules NHS England is responsible for funding PrEP

A judicial review in the High Court has ruled that NHS England is responsible for funding pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and decisively rebutted all the arguments used by NHS England to avoid paying for the use of PrEP.

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Editors' picks from other sources

Can immunotherapy cure HIV?

from Fred Hutch News Service

HIV cure researchers and advocates met at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center last week to explore whether immunotherapy – treatments that harness the immune system to fight cancer – could play a role in bringing about a cure or a long-term remission for HIV.

Do trade deals threaten India as low-cost HIV drug maker?

from Politifact

We wondered if it’s true that the next round of agreements, both those that involve the United States and those that don’t, would undermine some large drug makers in India.

Rhetoric meets reality: ending HIV and AIDS

from Open Democracy

Ending AIDS by 2030 is redundant rhetoric. It is meaningless without investment in community participation.

HIV drug 'gave me the confidence to trust again'

from BBC News

An HIV-preventative drug has been the subject of a legal battle over which organisation should pay for it. As campaigners win their High Court case against the NHS, one man tells how taking the medication has changed his life.

How majority Muslim countries are handling HIV infections

from VICE

Despite strict rules against promiscuity, homosexuality, drug use, and sex work, the Islamic world is nevertheless – and perhaps as a result – facing up to a growing HIV problem.