Overgrowth of a certain species of vaginal bacteria was associated with a 13-fold higher likelihood of becoming infected with HIV, while another species was found to lower tenofovir levels and may contribute to reduced efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) delivered in a vaginal gel, according to a set of presentations at the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) last month in Durban, South Africa.
A community-based sexual health clinic in San Francisco has offered nurse-led pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) services to more than 1200 clients and has seen no HIV infections to date, according to a presentation at the conference.
Participants in the START treatment-timing trial who took antiretroviral regimens containing efavirenz had an increased risk of suicidal and self-injuring behaviour than those not using efavirenz, though the number of events was small and the effect was mainly seen among people with a prior psychiatric diagnosis, according to research presented at the conference.
A detectable CMV viral load could signal a high risk of mortality in older individuals hospitalised with HIV-associated TB
A study conducted in a cohort of hospitalised adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) co-infection from Khayelitsha found that having a detectable cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load was associated with higher mortality within the first 12 weeks on TB treatment, according to Dr Amy Ward of the University of Cape Town who presented the findings at the conference.
Package of prophylaxis against infections reduces the risk of death for people starting HIV treatment very late
A package of enhanced prophylaxis against infections significantly reduced the risk of death in adults and children with advanced HIV disease after starting antiretroviral treatment in a randomised study, Professor James Hakim of the University of Zimbabwe told the conference.
AbbVie's paritaprevir-based 3D regimen for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 2D regimen for genotype 4 were shown to be highly effective and well tolerated for HIV-positive people with HCV co-infection in the TURQUOISE-I trial, according to a report at the conference.
Starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after HIV diagnosis led to better outcomes than delayed treatment in all population sub-groups in the START trial, researchers reported at the conference. But some people saw greater risk reductions, including those over age 50, those with a lower CD4:CD8 ratio and higher viral load, and those with cardiovascular risk factors.
Training community health workers to perform intensified TB case finding associated with a surge in TB diagnoses in a rural Malawi study
Intensified tuberculosis case finding (TB ICF) by community health workers was associated with a dramatic (20-fold) increase in TB case detection at a very busy antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in rural Malawi, according to findings presented at the conference.
For more conference news, and our summary bulletins from the 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016) held in Durban, South Africa, last month, visit our AIDS 2016 webpages.