Providing free school
uniforms to enable children to stay in school, in addition to exposing primary school students to the national
HIV/AIDS prevention curriculum, appeared to have a greater effect on reducing risky
sexual behaviours among youth and in particular girls in Western Kenya than
either intervention alone, Dr Vandana Sharma reported on Wednesday at the 19th
International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012) in Washington.
The randomised trial comprised over
19,000 youths (50% female) enrolled in one of 328 primary schools from 2003 to
2006. The follow-up cross-sectional survey looking at herpes simplex virus 2
(HSV-2) prevalence and behavioural outcomes took place between February 2009 and
March 2011, six to seven years after the intervention.
Adolescents aged 15 to 24 years of age account for
close to 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide By the end of 2010, there were 4.8 million
young people living with HIV, of whom 3 million or close to 70% were young
women and girls. More than half of the
estimated 75 million children not in primary school worldwide are girls.
Successful prevention of new infections in adolescents
will have a significant affect on the adult epidemic and on new paediatric infections.
Early adolescence offers a
window of opportunity. Education – staying in school – contributes to an
effective strategy for preventing HIV and AIDS among children; for delivering
critical information and countering stigma and discrimination.
“We invest so much in keeping
children alive in the first decade we must not lose them in the second,” said Geeta
Rao Gupta, of UNICEF, in Wednesday's plenary session, highlighting the urgent need to give the same kind of attention to prevention among adolescents that is given to prevention of mother-to-child transmission.
Pregnancy and sexually transmitted
infections are among the biggest health risks teenage girls face in sub-Saharan
Africa. In 2003, in Kenya, 24% of girls aged 15 to 19 had had a child.
The HIV infection rate among them was 3%. By 2009, it had increased to 7%.
The trial was designed to
look at the effectiveness of two programmes implemented in isolation or
combined on the transmission of HSV-2 in this population.
One programme was a highly targeted form of cash transfer: providing free school
uniforms to reduce the cost of education among upper primary school students, so
encouraging them to stay in school. The other programme consisted of a government-provided training
of three teachers for each primary school to help deliver the national HIV/AIDS
curriculum, that focuses on abstinence until marriage to prevent infection and
does not include condom information.
It is important to note that this trial lacked a comparator arm in which condom information and condom skills training were provided, and relied on one particular approach to school-based prevention which may not be replicated in other settings and which has proved controversial in many countries. Nevertheless, these data are important for the light they shed on the lack of power of a particular educational approach to achieve long-lasting behavioural change without the support of a structural intervention, in the form of cash transfers to keep young people in school.
Overall, noted Dr Vandana, a
high follow-up rate was achieved in spite of the lengthy gap between the start
of the study and final data collection. Initially, 54% of the trial participants were interviewed and
almost all agreed to HIV and HSV-2 testing. Of the remainder, 29% were selected
for tracking, resulting in 81% successfully surveyed.
HIV prevalence among males
was 0.17% (average age 20.33 years) and 1.56% among females (average age 19.93
years). HSV-2 prevalence was 7.14% and 11.79% among males and females, respectively.
Students, and in particular
girls, in schools where both programmes were in place had a 20% lower risk of
being infected with HSV-2 than girls in the control schools.
There appeared to be no
significant differences in HSV-2 prevalence between the control schools and
schools getting only one of the programmes.
The combination of the two
programmes was the only intervention that led to a clear reduction in STI
Dr Vandana concluded that the
national HIV/AIDS curriculum for primary school does not seem sufficient by
itself to reduce risky sexual behaviours among young people. Ensuring that young people can
stay in school appears a necessary complement. Understanding why both the
curriculum and the free school uniform is necessary rather than provision of a
free school uniform alone to get these results is the focus of further
Susan Kasedde, presenting on
behalf of UNICEF and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, in
another session today, reported on the national response to prevent HIV among
young people in 20 high-prevalence countries. The most widely implemented
intervention for young people was school-based prevention.
While HIV prevention among
young people was considered a priority in all national programmes, effective
monitoring and appropriate data collection were lacking.
With the considerable recent
international focus on, and recommitment to, HIV prevention among young people,
Dr. Kasedde and her colleagues chose to explore “What is the national
response to address the epidemic in young people aged 10 to 24 in countries
with high HIV prevalence”?
National strategic plans and
progress reports were reviewed in the following ways:
was assessed according to the inclusion of youth-specific activities within
national AIDS plans.
was determined by the degree to which prevention activities reached the
what were the absolute and relative amounts spent on youth-specific prevention
activities and were they adequate?
The objective of this review
was to be able to identify priorities for technical support and advocacy.
In five countries (Botswana, Ivory Coast, Kenya,
Namibia and Zimbabwe), an analysis that looked at data from three points in
time, reported declines in HIV prevalence of more than 25% among young people
in both rural and urban areas.
In eight countries, significant declines in HIV
prevalence in young people were found only in urban or rural areas or in males
Dr. Kasedde noted trends in HIV prevalence varied by
country and by gender. However, the one constant was that young women remain more
likely than men to be infected with HIV. In most high-prevalence countries, the
ratio was two to four young women to each male.
While prevalence is similar among boys and girls aged
10 to14, it rises more quickly among females during their adolescence and young
In all the national plans, HIV
prevention among young people was deemed a priority and youth-specific strategies
were included in all plans. All governments stated that school-based HIV
education is reaching most of those in need, as well as being included in
primary, secondary and teacher-training curricula.
The only other youth-specific category – prevention
for out-of-school youth – was reported as available to those in need in 16
The proportion of schools
reporting life-skills-based HIV education ranged from 2 to 100%.
In addition, Dr Kasedde
noted, while programmes for out-of-school young people, behaviour-change communication,
and condom promotion were most often included in national strategies, details of
the content, quality and coverage were missing.
In UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS country progress
reports, Dr. Kasedde and colleagues found, few countries disaggregated by age
and sex, indicators relevant to young people. There was no indication of
the quality of the programmes provided.
In most of the countries, prevention funding came from
international resources. In 2008, government contributions to overall HIV prevention
spending ranged from 0% in Uganda to 92% in Gabon.
Investments in youth-specific HIV prevention were
generally low, with spending on prevention for young people in school representing
less than 5%, and prevention for out-of-school youth representing 0 to 2% of
prevention spending in most countries.
Dr Kasedde concluded
that it is critical to strengthen:
Routine reporting on adolescents and young people;
Validation of the quality of programmes for this group;
Alignment of investments with the evidence base for impact
on risk, morbidity and mortality reduction; and
Domestic funding to ensure sustainability and
effective scale of delivery.