The themes and preoccupations of stories submitted by young
people in six African countries should be looked at to inform HIV prevention
programmes, researchers write in the journal Social Science and Medicine. With rates of condom use being low in
these populations, programmes need to better understand barriers and
facilitators of condom use, information needs and appropriate communication
Kate Winskell and colleagues used an innovative research
methodology: the qualitative analysis of scripts submitted by young people for
short films on the theme of HIV and AIDS. The Scenarios from Africa contest takes place annually and invites
young people aged 10 to 24 to propose a creative idea that could be turned into
a five minute educational film. For the 2005 contest, around 23,000 scenarios
were submitted from 35 countries.
The researchers acknowledge that the young people taking
part are not necessarily representative of the wider youth population: they are
likely to be better educated, more knowledgeable about HIV, more motivated
about HIV and more likely to live in urban areas. Nonetheless, the stories that
they tell are likely to draw on cultural and social representations that are
more widely shared.
“Narratives are a source of insight into how people make
sense of the world, and how they communicate those understandings to others,”
the authors say. “They reveal the cultural resources available to young people…
as they strive to make sense of the role of condoms in the response to HIV/AIDS.”
For this study, researchers analysed the themes of 586 texts
submitted in 2005 from six countries: Senegal,
Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Kenya,
Namibia and Swaziland. The
countries were selected on the basis of the diversity of their historic,
religious, development and epidemiological profiles.
Just over a third of the narratives mention condoms. It is
more common for characters to become infected because they failed to use
condoms than for the stories to show that condoms prevent infection. When no
reference to condoms is made, blame for infection is often seen to lie with the
‘immoral’ sexual behaviour of the characters.
A number of the narratives, especially from Nigeria, Kenya
question the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of condoms. Out of 120 Nigerian
narratives that were analysed, only three represent the use of a condom during
sex - and in each of these, the condom breaks. Other stories suggest that
condoms are only partially effective and propose abstinence as an alternative.
One Nigerian teenager concluded: “Many
thinks condom is the true protector (LIES) but I tell you today that the true
solution is self management.”
Several Kenyan stories argue for condoms to be made easily
available but at the same time do not condone their use. Condoms are morally
ambivalent. In one story a scene of condom distribution in a bar is brought to
a close with the text written on the condom packet: “Think twice: unprotected sex is a risk but adultery and fornication is
an illicit sex, a big sin and unsafe.”
On the other hand, most narratives from Burkina Faso, Swaziland
present condoms in a positive light, with a number debunking misinformation
about them. A number of stories, often using humour and avoiding a moralising
approach, show characters successfully using condoms.
Namibian writers tend to present condoms as a normal and
taken-for-granted part of life. In one story a character learns that her rural
cousin has two sexual partners. She is stunned that her cousin is not using ‘protection’.
“Where have you been? People are dying
like flies and you ask me ‘protection from what?’”
The contributors from Senegal tend to represent condoms
in positive terms. However the researchers find it notable that in this
relatively low-prevalence country, the stories focus on high-risk populations:
sex workers, people with multiple partners, people living with HIV, foreigners
and returning migrants. The researchers comment that this seems to present HIV
as being morally or geographically distant, but threatening to come into
people’s lives when there is an opportunity. One story involves a childhood
friend who returns home sick from Europe,
having been infected by a wealthy white woman. The narrator warns his audience
to beware of AIDS and to use condoms, “the
only medicine” for it.
The researchers note that PEPFAR-funded programmes target
condoms for high-risk groups, promoting abstinence instead. Condoms are only
provided to young people who “are identified as engaging in or at high risk for
engaging in risky sexual behaviours”. They suggest that such policies are
associated with the spread of misinformation about condom effectiveness, and
that the association of condoms with sex workers and other stigmatised groups
discourages others from using them.
Narratives from all countries consistently represent female
characters as initiating condom negotiation, while male characters typically
resist their use. Men’s barriers to condom use are overwhelmingly linked to
their own beliefs and attitudes. A number of male characters insist on
unprotected sex despite knowing that their partner has HIV, warnings from
friends or the persuasion of their partner, and in several cases, end up acquiring
Within marriage, women who attempt to negotiate condom use
are invariably met with their husbands’ resistance - which is often violent.
Women who acquiesce to unprotected sex are shown to be doing so because of
structural factors: poverty, an older partner, marriage, fear of losing their
partner. Women who succeed in condom negotiation are represented as not being
prepared to compromise and to have taken the trouble to educate their partner
about HIV and AIDS.
The authors suggest that these stories indicate the need for
education and communication programmes which promote alternative narratives,
featuring male role models who insist on condom use or refuse to concede under
Moreover education and communication programmes need to
respond to the specific themes encountered in different countries. “The data
suggest a clear need for tailored condom-related programming,” they write.
Where negative narratives proliferate - most obviously in Nigeria - there is a need for
community-level dialogue to challenge and reshape these representations.