1 World Health Organization. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access. Executive summary of recommendations. Preliminary vesrion for programme planning. June 2010.
2 World Health Organization. PMTCT strategic vision 2010-2015: preventing mother-to-child transmission to reach the UNGASS and Millennium Development Goals. 2010.
3 PLUS News, Friday May 28, 2010.
4 World Health Organization. PMTCT strategic vision. op cit.
5 UNICEF Unite for Children, Unite against AIDS. Children and AIDS: The fourth stocktaking report, November 2009 www.uniteforchildren.org
6 World Health Organizations executive summary, 2010 op cit.
7 Newell ML et al. Mortality of infected and uninfected infants born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a pooled analysis. Lancet 8; 364 (9441): 1236-1243, 2004.
8 Violari A et al. Early antiretroviral therapy and mortality among HIV-infected infants. N Engl J Med 359:2233-2244, 2008.
9 Azzoni L et al Antiretroviral treatment within 12 weeks of age is associated with induction of IL-7 production, boosted naïve T cell frequency and lower immune activation. Poster 887, Seventeenth Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco, February 2010.
10 Luzuriaga K et al. A trial of three antiretroviral regimens in HIV-1-infected children. New Engl J Med.350:2471-2480, 2004.
11 Berk DR et al. Temporal trends in early clinical manifestations of perinatal HIV infection in a population-based cohort. JAMA 293: 2221-2231, 2005.
12 Chiappini E et al. Virologic, immunologic, and clinical benefits from early combined antiretroviral therapy in infants with perinatal HIV-1 infection. AIDS 20:207-215, 2006.
13 Faye A. et al. Early versus deferred antiretroviral multidrug therapy in infants infected with HIV type 1. Clin Infect Dis. 39:1692-1698, 2004.
14 Violari A. et al. op cit.
15 World Health Organization. Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access .June 2010 op cit.
16 Boyd K and Dunn D. Discordance between CD4 cell count and CD4 percentage: implications for when to start antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected children. Advance online May edition. AIDS 2010
17 World Health Organization Antiretroviral therapy of HIV infection in infants and children: towards universal access-recommendations for a public health approach. 2006 and 2008
18 Houghton J. and Ball C. CHIVA-Africa. Mthatha Workshop, South Africa February 2010 http://www.chiva-africa.org
19 National Department of Health, South Africa. Op cit.
22 Professor Diana Gibb plenary presentation, CHIVA Conference, Brighton, May 2010 and personal communication
23 L’homme, RFA et al. Nevirapine, stavudine and lamivudine pharmacokinetics in African children on paediatric fixed dose combination tablets. AIDS, 22:557-565. 2008
24 WHO op cit.
25 Ellis JC et al. Nevirapine concentrations in HIV-infected children treated with divided fixed-dose combination antiretroviral tablets in Malawi and Zambia. Antivir Ther. 12(2) 253-60, 2007.
26 L’homme RFA et al. op cit
27 Compiled by James Nuttal and colleagues for the Pediatric HIV/TB policy reference group, Western Cape South Africa adapted from WHO guidelines 2006 and 2008.
28 Wolde, A L. Communication firstname.lastname@example.org WHO’s new HIV treatment guidelines, December 15, 2009.
29 Abrams EJ plenary presentation Putting the C back into PMTCT, 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, San Francisco February 2010
30 World Health Organization, Executive Summary, 2010. op cit.
31 Vreeman RC et al. A systematic review of pediatric adherence to antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 27(8) 686-91, 2008.
32 Davies MA et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in young children in Cape Town, South Africa measured by medication return and caregiver self-report: a prospective cohort study. BMC. Pediatr 8:34, 2008. www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/8/34
33 van Griensven J et al. Success with antiretroviral treatment for children in Kigali, Rwanda: experience with health center/nurse-based care. BMC Pediatrics 8:39, 2008. www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/8/39
34 Weigel R et al. Supporting children to adhere to antiretroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi-method insights. BMC Pediatrics 9:45, 2009. www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2431/9/45
35 WHO, Executive Summary June 2010 op cit.
36 Houghton J Step-by-step guide for the management of children on ART (3rd edition); HAST Unit, Department of Health, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2008..
37 Reitz C et al. Initial response to protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy among children less than 2 years of age in South Africa: effect of cotreatment for tuberculosis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201:1121-1131. 2010.
38 Cotton, MF et al. Antiretroviral therapy in children with tuberculosis: progress toward defining the issues. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201: 1113-1114, 2010.
39 Violari op cit.
40 Cotton M et al. op cit.
43 Davies MA et al. op cit
44 Cotton M. op cit.
45 Cotton M et al. op cit.
46 WHO 2006 op cit.
47 WHO Executive Summary, June 2010. op cit.
48 WHO 2006 op cit.
49 WHO Executive Summary,June 2010 op cit
51 WHO 2006 op cit..
52 Houghton J and Ball C. op cit
54 Nuttal J and Raiman S Antiretroviral drug dosing chart and comments on individual drugs compiled for the Pediatric HIV/TB policy reference group, Western Cape South Africa adapted from WHO guidelines 2006 and 2008
55 National Department of Health, South Africa. Op cit.
57 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA), PENTA 2009 guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in paediatric HIV-1 infection. 2009
58 Rujumba, J et al.Challenges faced by health workers in providing counselling services to HIV-positive children in Uganda: a descriptive study. Journal of the International AIDS Society 13: 9, 2010
59 Eley, B. Responding to HIV/AIDS: beyond science and statistics. A book review (From the ground up: building comprehensive HIV/AIDS care programs in resource-limited settings see other tools/resources for details.).The Lancet vol 375, March 20, 2010.
60 See resources for details
61 Abrams, EJ op cit.