How transmission occurs: latest news

How transmission occurs resources

  • Transmission and viral load

    An undetectable viral load shows that HIV treatment is working well and that there is very little HIV in body fluids.In this situation, the risk...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Transmission facts

    HIV can only be passed on when one person's body fluids get inside another person. HIV can be passed on during sex without a condom,...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • HIV transmission

    The two main ways in which HIV is passed on are unprotected vaginal and anal sex.Condoms, PrEP and HIV treatment are effective ways of preventing...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Sex

    Having HIV can affect people’s feelings about sex in many different ways. Some people become anxious about passing HIV on, or feel less desirable. While some people go...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Risk

    An examination of prosecuted behaviours, using scientific evidence to determine actual risk, and how this evidence has been applied in jurisdictions worldwide....

    From: HIV & the criminal law

    Information level Level 4
  • How transmission occurs

    HIV can be transmitted through – and, as far as essentially all evidence shows, only through – several well-established routes: By sharing injecting equipment By...

    From: HIV transmission & testing

    Information level Level 4

How transmission occurs features

How transmission occurs in your own words

  • Bored and horny

    It’s Sunday afternoon and it’s raining. I’m bored and horny. However, I’ve got £20 left over from the night before and this will be enough...

    From: In your own words

How transmission occurs news from aidsmap

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How transmission occurs news selected from other sources

  • Vertical HIV transmission may be influenced by complex synergies with other STI – such as Cytomegalovirus

    The apparently greater susceptibility of sub-Saharan African women to HIV infection has led researchers to consider the various potential synergies between HIV and other genital infections or conditions of the vaginal microbiome. A recent study brings this wider perspective to bear on mother-to-child transmission, casting some fresh light on the complex interrelation between the ‘vertical’ transmission of HIV and active and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viruria.

    27 July 2017 | BMJ Group blogs
  • Study points to penile microbiome as a risk factor for HIV in men

    A ten-fold increase in some types of bacteria living under the foreskin can increase a man's risk of HIV infection by up to 63 percent, according to a new study out today by researchers at Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University (GW).

    25 July 2017 | Medical Xpress
  • Melbourne man tests positive to HIV while taking preventative drug

    A man has tested positive to HIV at a Melbourne clinic while participating in a trial of PrEP, an antiretroviral drug credited with preventing the spread of the disease. It's understood just over a week ago, he tested positive to HIV at a Melbourne clinic. On Monday, a spokesman at The Alfred confirmed researchers were "reviewing the clinical details of a man who has tested positive to HIV while being a registered participant of the Victorian PrEPX study."

    22 May 2017 | The Age (Melbourne)
  • Bacterial communities of female genital tract impact HIV infection risk

    More diverse vaginal microbiomes in South African women may underlie increased risk

    12 January 2017 | Ragon Institute
  • HIV/AIDS: Filarial worm infections double the risk of infection

    Since the start of the HIV epidemic, there have been speculations as to why HIV and the immunodeficiency syndrome it causes have spread so much more in Africa than in other countries around the world. Scientists have now, for the first time, confirmed one reason for this: in a cohort study conducted in Tanzania, they discovered that an infection with the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti increases the risk of HIV infection by two to three fold.

    16 August 2016 | Eurekalert Inf Dis
  • Early-capture HIV study allows for characterization of acute infection period

    Acute HIV infection (AHI) contributes significantly to HIV transmission and may be important for intervention strategies seeking to reduce incidence and achieve a functional cure. In a study by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, published in The New England Journal of Medicine, scientists enrolled and intensively followed a cohort of high-risk individuals, tracking their HIV status and characterizing the disease through the acute stages of HIV infection.

    19 May 2016 | EurekAlert!
  • Have sex workers revealed a connection between semen exposure and HIV resistance?

    In a new study, scientists at The Wistar Institute have found that continued semen exposure in these sex workers sustains changes in the cervical and vaginal microenvironment in a way that may actually increase HIV-1 resistance. This information may lead the way to better preventative strategies that block the transmission of the virus and improved designs for future HIV vaccine studies that can monitor the described changes when recruiting sex workers into vaccine trials.

    09 December 2015 | Eurekalert Inf Dis
  • Meet the HIV-negative men who won't have sex with HIV-positive men

    FS surveyed 3,140 gay men and found 44% of HIV-negative men that would not have sex with an openly HIV-positive man. So we decided to reach out to these men and ask them directly, why?

    02 December 2015 | FS
  • Superhero Vaginal Bacteria Species Traps HIV, Could Be a Natural Condom Someday

    The benevolent powers of the vaginal microbiome are even greater than we thought. In addition to aiding fertilization and protecting fetuses during pregnancy, healthy vaginal mucus that’s full of good bacteria can trap and immobilize HIV particles. The study examined the cervicovaginal mucus, or CVM, of 31 women and tested its ability to immobilize HIV particles. CVM samples that contained higher concentrations of D-lactic acid, which only bacteria can produce, did far better than others. The D-lactic acid wasn’t itself a barrier to HIV, but an indicator of something else going on that made certain types of CVM better at trapping the virus than others. That something was Lactobacillus crispatus, a species of bacteria that could change the way we think about HIV prevention.

    08 October 2015 | Slate
  • Infection with multiple HIV-1 variants leads to poorer clinical outcomes

    HIV-1 infection with multiple founder variants points to poorer clinical outcomes than infection with a single variant, according to a paper published today in Nature Medicine. In the study researchers analyzed large sample sets from two important HIV vaccine efficacy trials -- the Step HIV vaccine clinical trial (HVTN 502) and RV144, the landmark vaccine clinical trial conducted in Thailand -- to evaluate whether genetic characteristics of the founder viral populations could influence markers of clinical outcomes.

    01 September 2015 | Eurekalert Inf Dis
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Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap
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