How transmission occurs: latest news

How transmission occurs resources

  • Oral sex

    Many people enjoy giving and receiving oral sex – kissing, licking or sucking another person’s genitals.The risk of getting HIV from performing oral sex on...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Transmission and viral load

    An undetectable viral load shows that HIV treatment is working well and that there is very little HIV in body fluids.In this situation, the risk...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • Transmission facts

    HIV can only be passed on when one person's body fluids get inside another person. HIV can be passed on during sex without a condom,...

    From: The basics

    Information level Level 1
  • HIV transmission

    The two main ways in which HIV is passed on are unprotected vaginal and anal sex.Condoms, PrEP and HIV treatment are effective ways of preventing...

    From: Factsheets

    Information level Level 2
  • Sex

    Having HIV can affect people’s feelings about sex in many different ways. Some people become anxious about passing HIV on, or feel less desirable. While some people go...

    From: Booklets

    Information level Level 2
  • Risk

    An examination of prosecuted behaviours, using scientific evidence to determine actual risk, and how this evidence has been applied in jurisdictions worldwide....

    From: HIV & the criminal law

    Information level Level 4
  • How transmission occurs

    HIV can be transmitted through – and, as far as essentially all evidence shows, only through – several well-established routes: By sharing injecting equipment By...

    From: HIV transmission & testing

    Information level Level 4

How transmission occurs features

How transmission occurs in your own words

  • Bored and horny

    It’s Sunday afternoon and it’s raining. I’m bored and horny. However, I’ve got £20 left over from the night before and this will be enough...

    From: In your own words

How transmission occurs news from aidsmap

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How transmission occurs news selected from other sources

  • Zambia, South Africa prevention study finds those with herpes virus facing six times HIV risk

    Communities’ HIV prevalence could be predicted “almost exactly” from prevalence of herpes virus, researchers find.

    14 April 2018 | Science Speaks
  • The Blesser's Curse

    How sugar daddies and vaginal microbes created the world’s largest HIV epidemic.

    23 March 2018 | The Atlantic
  • How HIV Alters Cells May Facilitate Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C

    A new study identifies key changes that HIV makes to Langerhans cells in the mucosal lining of the rectum.

    22 March 2018 | Poz
  • Exploring Factors That Contribute to Increased Risk of HIV Infection in Transgender Women

    Although transgender women's increased risk of HIV infection has been attributed to behavioral risk factors, Sandhya Vasan, MD, from the department of Retrovirology at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), in Bangkok, Thailand, shared that other factors may also impact the risk of infection, such as the effects that exogenous hormones have on the immune system and the impact that injectable fillers or sex reassignment surgery (SRS) has on immune reactivation.

    06 March 2018 | Contagion Live
  • Longstanding Mombasa Cohort helps answer questions about HIV risk and transmission

    This month, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center virologist Dr. Julie Overbaugh and her collaborators in Kenya and the U.S. celebrated the 25th anniversary of a unique group of HIV research participants — high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya — who helped change the landscape of HIV transmission research.

    28 February 2018 | Fred Hutch
  • Genital inflammation reduces efficacy of tenofovir gel against HIV in women

    The researchers performed a post hoc prospective analysis of 774 patients who participated in the Centre for the AIDS Program of Research In South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 study, a trial of topical tenofovir gel. McKinnon and colleagues measured concentrations of nine different proinflammatory cytokines from cervicovaginal lavages, and defined genital inflammation using a graduated cytokine store.

    28 February 2018 | Healio
  • Infection Site Affects How a Virus Spreads through the Body

    A person is more likely to get infected by HIV through anal intercourse than vaginal, but no one knows quite why. A new study by scientists at the Gladstone Institutes shows that infection sites could affect the immune system’s response to a virus and the way the virus spreads through the body.

    27 February 2018 | Gladstone Institutes
  • Microbiome research refines HIV risk for women

    Drawing from data collected for years by AIDS researchers in six African nations, scientists have pinpointed seven bacterial species whose presence in high concentrations may significantly increase the risk of HIV infection in women.

    26 January 2018 | Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • Schistosomiasis increases HIV risk in African women

    Pre-existing schistosomiasis infection almost tripled the risk for HIV infection in women from a rural area of Tanzania, according to recent data. The parasitic worm infection also increased HIV viral load at seroconversion.

    01 November 2017 | Healio
  • Penile Microbiome Linked to HIV Risk in Uncircumcised Men

    A study in Africa found that men with high levels of certain bacteria under the foreskin were more likely to contract HIV.

    12 September 2017 | Poz
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Community Consensus Statement on Access to HIV Treatment and its Use for Prevention

Together, we can make it happen

We can end HIV soon if people have equal access to HIV drugs as treatment and as PrEP, and have free choice over whether to take them.

Launched today, the Community Consensus Statement is a basic set of principles aimed at making sure that happens.

The Community Consensus Statement is a joint initiative of AVAC, EATG, MSMGF, GNP+, HIV i-Base, the International HIV/AIDS Alliance, ITPC and NAM/aidsmap
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This content was checked for accuracy at the time it was written. It may have been superseded by more recent developments. NAM recommends checking whether this is the most current information when making decisions that may affect your health.

NAM’s information is intended to support, rather than replace, consultation with a healthcare professional. Talk to your doctor or another member of your healthcare team for advice tailored to your situation.