HIV RNA remained detectable at low levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of almost 20% of patients who had HIV RNA levels below 40 copies/mL for up to 10 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The investigators believe their finding indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) can be an HIV reservoir during suppressive ART.
28 October 2014 | International AIDS Society
One of the most effective methods used by HIV to evade control is to hide from the immune system. B-cells are crucial for controlling new infections, producing specific antibodies to attack it, which coat the surface of infected cells and tag them for destruction. But according to a study from Duke Medicine, published in Cell Host & Microbe, when HIV enters and begins replicating in the gut, the reaction of B cells is ineffective because the virus is able to pose as a “good” bacterium. Its gp41 surface protein - which is displayed on the surface of infected cells - looks like surface proteins on the cells of friendly gut bacteria.
21 August 2014 | The Conversation UK
We've been given the first glimpse of HIV in attack mode in the gut, shedding light on how the virus hijacks immune cells, multiplies and spreads throughout the body. A team of biochemists have used electron tomography microscopes to capture the high-resolution, 3D images.
31 January 2014 | New Scientist
Recently discovered T memory stem cells may be long-term viral reservoir, potential targets for future treatment.
13 January 2014 | Harvard Gazette
HIV leads to AIDS primarily because the virus destroys essential immune cells called CD4 T cells, but precisely how these cells are killed has not been clear. Two papers published simultaneously today (19 December) in Nature and Science reveal the molecular mechanisms that cause the death of most CD4 T cells in lymphoid tissues, the main reservoir for such cells, during infection.
20 December 2013 | The Scientist
Studies of a potential vaccine target bolster claims that an earlier paper was flawed.
05 November 2013 | Nature
HIV has a fatty outer membrane similar to that surrounding a living cell. This membrane probably acts like a balloon—in other words the pressure inside it is greater than the pressure outside it. That means it can be burst, which is what some scientists believe provides the driving force by which a virus injects its genetic material into a cell in order to infect it.
18 October 2013 | The Economist
Scientists have identified a gene which they say may have the ability to prevent HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, from spreading after it enters the body. In an early-stage study in the journal Nature, researchers said the gene, called MX2, appears to play a key role in how HIV is controlled in human cells.
19 September 2013 | Reuters
Changes in intestinal bacteria may contribute to disease progression and development of non-AIDS conditions in people with HIV, even those on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), according to a report in the July 10, 2013, issue of Science Translational Medicine.
25 July 2013 | HIVandHepatitis.com
A new study has examined the impact of aflatoxins on the AIDS epidemic in Africa. Aflatoxins are poisons produced by aspergillus fungi that can be found on damp grains, nuts, and beans, usually in hot humid climates. They have also been found to be immunosuppressive, possibly causing increased immunosuppression in HIV-positive individuals.
24 July 2013 | CDC National Prevention Information Network